Contrasts: or a parallel between the noble edifices of the middle ages, and corresponding by: Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore, Contrasts: Or, A Parallel Between the Noble Edifices of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries and Similar Buildings of the Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin. Contrasts: Or, A Parallel Between the Noble Edifices of the Middle Ages, and Corresponding Buildings of the Present Day, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin.
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Contrasts; or, A parallel between the noble edifices of the - Full View Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore, Download PDF Download EPUB. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin. (). Biography. Influences and Built Works. Purposes. Contrasts. True Principles of Pointed or. Christian. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin was an English architect, designer, artist, and critic who is . In , Pugin published Contrasts, a polemical book which argued for the revival of the Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Salisbury[ edit ] Following his second marriage in , Pugin moved to Salisbury , Wiltshire , England with his wife,  and in bought half an acre of land in Alderbury , circa one and a half miles outside the town. On this he built a Gothic Revival style house for his family, which he named St.
Marie's Grange. British society at the time had many restrictions on any person not adhering to the state religion of the Church of England: Non-Anglicans could not attend a university, for example, or serve on parish or city councils, be a member of Parliament, serve in the armed forces, or even serve on a jury.
A number of reforms in the early 19th century relieved these restrictions, the most important of which was the Roman Catholic Relief Act of , which specifically abolished the restrictions. After it became, at least theoretically, possible for Roman Catholics to have a successful career; this was the context of A.
Pugin's conversion to the Roman Catholic Church. However, his conversion also acquainted him with new patrons and employers. In he made the acquaintance of John Talbot, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury , a Roman Catholic sympathetic to his aesthetic theory and who employed him in alterations and additions to his residence of Alton Towers , which subsequently led to many more commissions.
Contrasts[ edit ] "Contrasted Residences for the Poor" from Pugin's Contrasts In , Pugin published Contrasts, a polemical book which argued for the revival of the medieval Gothic style , and also "a return to the faith and the social structures of the Middle Ages".
Each structure was the built expression of a particular view of humanity: Christianity versus Utilitarianism. King's College London was shown from an unflatteringly skewed angle, while Christ Church, Oxford , was edited to avoid showing its famous Tom Tower because that was by Christopher Wren and so not medieval. But the cumulative rhetorical force was tremendous. He conceived of "Christian architecture" as synonymous with medieval, "Gothic", or "pointed", architecture.
In the work he also wrote that contemporary craftsmen seeking to emulate the style of medieval workmanship should reproduce its methods. Ramsgate[ edit ] In he left Salisbury ,  having found it an inconvenient base for his growing architectural practice.
Marie's Grange at a considerable financial loss,  and moved temporarily to Cheyne Walk , Chelsea , London , England. He had, however, already purchased a parcel of land at West Cliff, Ramsgate , Thanet , Kent , England , where he proceeded to build for himself a large house and, at his own expense, a church dedicated to St. Augustine , after whom he thought himself named.
He worked on this church whenever funds permitted it. His second wife died in and was buried at St Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham , England , which he had designed. Pugin also supplied drawings for the entry of James Gillespie Graham.
Despite his conversion to the Roman Catholic Church in , Pugin designed and refurbished both Anglican and Catholic churches throughout England.
Other works include St. He also designed the collegiate buildings of St. Patrick and St.
Mary in St. Patrick's College, Maynooth , Ireland ; though not the collegiate chapel.
His original plans included both a chapel and an aula maxima great hall , neither of which were built because of financial constraints. The college chapel was designed by a follower of Pugin, the Irish architect J. Also in Ireland , Pugin designed St.
Mary's Cathedral in Killarney , St. He revised the plans for St. Michael Church in Ballinasloe , Galway , Ireland.
Bishop Wareing also invited Pugin to design what eventually became Northampton Cathedral , a project that was completed in by Pugin's son Edward Welby Pugin. Pugin visited Italy in ; his experience there confirmed his dislike of Renaissance and Baroque architecture, but he found much to admire in the medieval art of northern Italy. For four months he was confined to a private asylum, Kensington House. Jane and a doctor removed Pugin from Bedlam and took him to a private house in Hammersmith where they attempted therapy, and he recovered sufficiently to recognise his wife.
Pugin's biographer, Rosemary Hill, suggests that, in the last year of his life, he was suffering from hyperthyroidism which would account for his symptoms of exaggerated appetite, perspiration, and restlessness.
Contrasts argued for a revival of medieval, Gothic architecture, and with it a return to the faith and the social structures of the Middle Ages. Each plate took a single urban building type and compared the modern example with its 15th-century equivalent.
Thus, a picture of a late-Georgian inn, cobbled together inconveniently from a row of terraced houses and set behind sharp iron railings, sat next to one of the Angel Hotel in Grantham, with its welcoming bow windows and promising beer cellar. Its neo-classical gateway, squeezed between houses, looked mean beside the mighty front of Christ Church Oxford.
The drawings were all calculatedly unfair. But the cumulative rhetorical force was tremendous. Pugin had struck at a moment when the architectural establishment was coming under critical scrutiny.
The stucco-fronted neoclassicism of the Regency, pilloried in Contrasts, was looking tired. Increasingly, it seemed to represent an age of decadence and waste of public money.
John Nash, its most eminent exponent, had died the year before in disgrace, having been unable to account for the huge overspend on Buckingham Palace; a public enquiry had failed to establish the exact cost of George IV's lavish refurbishment of Windsor Castle. While Pugin was planning Contrasts, this simmering resentment against a closed and self-serving architectural establishment came to a head late one October afternoon in , when the Palace of Westminster caught fire.
The blaze turned out to be the last great show of Georgian London, watched by a vast crowd, which included Pugin and Turner, who painted it. As the Office of Works moved swiftly to bring in one of its architects for the rebuilding, public opinion rebelled. As the Morning Herald put it: "This time the British people intend to have the choosing of the architects.
At the time, however, despite his claims to architectural omniscience, Pugin was little more than a draughtsman. One of his more lucrative jobs had been to provide the decorative details for Barry's winning Westminster design, and he was to return to work on the Palace from time to time for the rest of his life. Over the years he designed some of its most successful elements, including the interior of the House of Lords. Now, however, the success of Pugin's manifesto launched him as an architect in his own right, and he set about rebuilding Britain as a Gothic Catholic Christendom.
It was a Quixotic crusade, but one in which he came closer to success than might ever have been expected. By the time Pugin was 30, he had built 22 churches, three cathedrals, three convents, half a dozen houses, several schools and a Cistercian monastery.
He carried the battle into the heart of the industrial cities, the '"inexhaustible mines of bad taste" at Birmingham and Sheffield, infested with "Greek buildings, smoking chimnies, radicals and dissenters".
St Chad 's, his Birmingham church, built amid the squalor of the gunmakers' quarter, became England's first cathedral since Wren's St Paul's.
Politically he might best be described as conservative radical. He wanted to reform society by returning it to a benign hierarchy, an idealised medievalism, in which each class could look upwards for support, and would accept responsibility for those below them.
It was the indifference of the modern city that appalled him. In he published a second edition of Contrasts, to which he added two new plates that developed the argument beyond individual buildings, to present a whole moral panorama.